Updated August, 2018 Openings in lab

Our mission

to design, develop, and deploy neurotechnology to better understand the nervous system and improve human lives
Providence, RI June 2016

Lab in the news

  • Congrats to Chris and Radu for their Spotlight in Trends in Neuroscience! (2018)
  • Congratulations Dr. Xiaoxiao Hou - first Ph.D. from the lab!
  • Congratulations to Caleb on his acceptance to Columbia University Ph.D. program - good luck!
  • Congrats to Marc for his publication in the Journal of Neuroscience Methods! (2017)
  • Mapping the Brain to Address Mental Illness - Draper Fellow (Nicole) decodes brain signals to demonstrate potential of Deep Brain Stimulation - Draper News (2017)
  • Congrats to Caleb on receiving the Neal B. Mitchell '58 Award – Systems Thinking Project Award to support his summer research in the lab! (2017)
  • Congrats to Derrick for his publication, "Advances in Retinal Prosthetic Research" Current Eye Research (2017)
  • Congrats to Radu and Marc on their Neuron Spotlight feature, "On delivering the sense of touch to the human brain," Neuron (2017)
  • "A brain-spine interface alleviating gait deficits after spinal cord injury in primates," Nature - Press: NYTimes , NPR , TIME, Gizmodo (2016)
  • Borton lab receives a BRAIN Initiative grant for work on deep brain stimulation therapy for OCD, with Dr. Wayne Goodman (2016)
  • Prof. Borton receives DARPA Young Faculty Award for work on restoration of lower limb proprioception (2015)
  • Borton lab receives International Foundation for Research in Paraplegia award for work on cervical spinal cord stimulation to restore upper limb motor function (2015)
  • Nicole Provenza receives the Draper Fellowship for her Masters work in the Borton lab (2015)
  • Wireless brain sensor could unchain neuroscience from cables (2014)
  • Brown new faculty profiles are out!
  • "Wireless, implanted sensor broadens range of brain research,” NIH News, March 19 (2013)
  • “Wireless option developed for brain-powered device,” Science Daily, March 6 (2013)
  • “Yorkshire Pigs Control Computer Gear With Brain Waves,” Wired, March 5 (2013)
  • Recent lab events

    Lab bike ride on East Bay Bike Path - Providence-Bristol, RI 2017


    We are funded by the International Foundation for Research in Paraplegia (IRP), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) through the Young Faculty Award (YFA), the National Institute for Neurological Disease and Stroke, the National Institute for Mental Health, General Electric Global Research, Draper, and Brown University Seed funds

    Lab projects


    Historically, brain machine interfaces (BMIs) have traded high spatial resolution for limited cortical coverage. Micro electrode arrays (MEAs) can record from single neurons and capture full spike waveforms but can only record from a small, mm scale, portion of the brain. Electrocorticography (ECoG) and electroencephalography (EEG) can record from multiple cortical sites but integrate the activity of many neurons together, obscuring the intricacies of the underlying circuits. We are developing implantable devices that bridge the gap between resolution and scope. Specifically, we are designing a platform technology for accessing a set of independently addressable neural interrogators or nodes distributed across the cortical surface. The system will enable clinicians and researchers to place nodes anywhere on the cortex, agnostic to location and therefore to the specific needs of the treatment or experiment being performed. Nodes will enable simultaneous read and write capabilities and can be used to track the flow of information across the brain. Multiple stages of wireless powering and data transmission not only eliminate percutaneous elements, preventing infection and enabling full mobility for the subject, but also eliminate transdural electrical cabling. Therefore, nodes can move with the brain, untethered to the skull, and may be placed independently, alleviating many of the surgical challenges currently faced while implanting MEAs. With a single device, neuroscientists and physicians will be free to specify a custom BMI suited to their needs, not limited by resolution, small recording area, or even interface modality.


    Many, if not all, tissue interface related failures of microelectrode arrays are caused by oxidative stress. The neurofilm project aims to treat oxidative stress through local release of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant drugs to the tissues surrounding neural implants. Through polymer-drug interactions, we are developing a thin film which can stabilize and extend the release of these drugs to locally modulate the foreign body responses at the cellular level, without causing adverse systemic effects. We hope that this treatment will ultimately further basic neuroscience research, as well as current neural prosthetic treatments, by increasing reliability and functional recording lifetime of microelectrode arrays.

    Spinal stimulation for control of sensory dynamics

    Epidural electrical stimulation of the spinal cord is a therapy currently approved for patients diagnosed with intractable pain, but it is also able to engage the neural circuitry involved in locomotion. However, the mechanisms by which this happens are not fully understood. My research uses computational modelling to understand these mechanisms and engineer new therapies for patients with altered locomotion. First, we are using several imaging modalities to extract personalized three dimensional models of the neural structures recruited by stimulation. Second, we use the finite element method to compute the electric potential distribution created by the stimulation. Finally, we are creating biophysically realistic models of the neural circuits responsible for locomotion in the spinal cord. This platform allows us to prototype novel stimulation paradigms in sillico, before progressing to experiments in vivo and eventual human translation.

    Corticothalamic closed-loop modulation

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common adult movement disorder (Louis, Ottman et al. 1998), with a greater than 20x prevalence than Parkinson’s disease. The predominant symptom of ET is typically a kinetic tremor of the hands, but symptoms also commonly include tremor of the head and voice. However, the mechanisms underlying ET are not well understood, and no curative treatment exists. Prescription medications may be effective for mild or moderate tremor, while others self-medicate with alcohol, but for patients with severe, medication-refractory tremor, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a valuable treatment option and is usually preferable to thalamotomy. DBS devices are typically left powered on continuously throughout the day and night to control the symptoms of ET, and many patients experience side effects of stimulation, such as dysarthria, paresthesias, and gait ataxia. In the current form of clinically available DBS therapy, a physician observes patient symptoms and adjusts stimulation parameters (e.g. voltage and frequency of the electrical stimulation) at appointments that may be days, weeks, or months apart. In contrast, a system that can sense biomarkers and automatically adjust stimulation parameters could respond to changes in the patient's behavior, goals, or disease state with a response time on the order of seconds. Specific biomarkers might include neural activity related to movement initiation assayed from electrocorticography (ECoG) or electroencephalography (EEG), and wearable kinematic sensors (e.g. inertial motion units, IMUs, common to many consumer wearable electronics). Such functionality would open the door to a broad class of biomarker-controlled closed-loop DBS paradigms with the potential to more effectively treat the symptoms of ET, reduce stimulation-related side effects, reduce the power consumption of the implanted device and accordingly reduce the frequency of surgical battery replacements.

    Forelimb sensorimotor corticospinal dynamics

    The emergence of electrical epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has provided a promising avenue for the treatment of a variety of sensorimotor disorders. Unfortunately, the way in which SCS impacts neural circuitry in the spinal cord as well as upstream networks in the thalamus and cortex is poorly defined. This creates a problem as therapeutic implementation can be inefficient and lead to unpredictable or adverse results. Using both computational and in vivo experimental methods, my project focuses on how SCS in cervical spinal cord affects underlying neural circuits and their relation to the input and output of the upper limbs. Our first aim is to build a detailed, biophysically realistic computational model that describes the flow of information as it travels from the periphery to the cortex, and back. In conjunction with in vivo studies, this model will help us understand the mechanisms by which SCS acts on the spinal cord, and allow for accurately parameterized stimulation therapies. Our second aim is to use this framework to develop a brain-spinal interface. By simultaneously recording neural activity in the cortex, we can generate a closed-loop that will adjust spinal stimulation based on decoded cortical signals. This design will enable an adaptive therapeutic that will optimally adjust stimulation when necessary, decreasing the chance of unwanted side-effects.

    Distributed, implanted kinetic and kinematic sensors

    We are designing a miniature, implantable, Bluetooth-based sensing device for the benefit of untethered, free-moving animal research. We primarily use off-the-shelf components, and push the size and power to their limits as much as possible. Here are some features of the device: 1) Data transmission: Bluetooth Low Energy (or BLE). BLE is an extremely low power and compact wireless protocol, dedicated for transmitting small, infrequent pieces of data. Estimate data rate is 20ksps, with a typical current consumption of 1mA (100Hz). 2) Sensors: We will primarily use two categories of sensors: kinematic sensors (or IMU, Inertial Motion Unit) and muscle sensors (force sensor and EMG sensor) Kinematic sensors together with data fusion algorithm will give us absolute orientation at every time moment. We can monitor individual joint movements (flexion, extension, rotation) and construct whole-body kinematics. This would be a complementary approach to the current camera tracking system. 3) Wireless charging: Estimate power delivery is 10mW. We will customize the receiving coil so that it can fit into our device. We will build a rectifier and regulator on board.


    TRANSFORM DBS stands for Trans-diagnostic Restoration of Affective Networks by System Identification and Function Oriented Real-Modeling and Deep Brain Stimulation. The initiative aims to develop a closed-loop DBS implant for the treatment of intractable psychiatric illness, specifically to address the needs of returning veterans. A tiny implanted, programmable device will record neural activity from multiple areas of the brain, sense pathological activity, and deliver targeted electrical stimulation to relieve symptoms. DBS is already successful for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor. TRANSFORM DBS aims to expand the DBS approach to address psychiatric illness, including post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and pain. Nicole focuses on identifying neural signatures of psychiatric illness and how DBS in different brain areas affects associated neural circuits.

    Interluminescence - BLOG

    BioLuminescent OptoGenetics (BL-OG) holds the promise for inter-luminescence, the activation of microbial opsins on one cell by the bioluminescent proteins expressed on a different cell. Our project aims to establish a cell culture based inter-luminescence setup to assess the influence of distance on the effects of BL-OG. If possible, it would not only provide a proof of concept for the process across cellular distances, but also a versatile in vitro method for the study and testing of inter-luminescence. Such an approach, performed under conditions which can be matched to physiologically relevant contexts, could open the way to potential therapeutic applications in which cellular communication and interaction is key, such as spinal cord injuries and motor system disorders, two major research areas of this laboratory.

    Biohybrid retinal stimulation

    The field of retinal prosthetics faces several challenges in restoring visual acuity, including electrical field interference, microfabrication, electrode proximity, and high stimulation thresholds. This project aims to address these challenges by stimulating neurons cultured on an electrode array that synapse directly onto the retina. After reviewing retinal prosthetic initiatives currently in development and designing a model for the stimulator, we are examining whether the stimulation of cultured neurons synapsed onto retinal sections and cultures evokes responses and induce plasticity with the eventual goal of testing this system in vivo.

    People in the lab

    David A. Borton (Neuroengineer, PI)
    BH733 863.2963
    Assistant Professor, Biomedical Engineering
    School of Engineering
    Carney Institute for Brain Science
    Providence VA Medical Center, Center for Neurorestoration and Neurotechnology

    Technical and administrative staff

    Aaron Gregoire
    Technical research assistant
    Cathleen McElroy
    Administrative assistant

    Graduate students

    David Xing
    Ph.D. Student in Biomedical Engineering
    Corticospinal neuroprostheses
    Evan Matteson
    Ph.D. Student in Biomedical Engineering
    Corticothalamic closed-loop modulation
    Marc Powell
    Ph.D. Student in Biomedical Engineering
    Networked Neural Nodes - BrainCell
    Radu Darie
    Ph.D. Student in Biomedical Engineering
    Spinal stimulation for control of sensory dynamics
    Elaina Atherton
    Ph.D. Student in Biotechnology
    Chris Black
    Ph.D. Student in Biomedical Engineering
    Sensorimotor corticospinal dynamics
    Nicole Provenza
    Ph.D. Student in Biomedical Engineering
    Draper Fellow
    Responsive neuromodulation for neuropsychiatric illness
    Anusha Allawala
    Ph.D. Student in Biomedical Engineering
    NSF Fellow
    Cell-type specific responses in the spinal cord to tactile and painful sensory input

    Masters students

    Undergraduate students

    Beatriz de Arruda
    UTRA - Biomedical Engineering
    Motor cortex control of primate locomotion
    Derek Hong
    Research Assistant - Biomedical Engineering
    Development of computer-based tasks for neuropsychiatric patient behavior quantification


    Moses Goddard, M.D.
    Associate Professor of Surgery


    Ph.D. students
    Xiaoxiao Hou
    Ph.D. Electrical Engineering (Apple, inc.)
    Master's students
    Yinong Wang
    M.S. Biomedical Engineering (3M, Artificial Intelligence)
    Sarah Syrop
    M.S. Biomedical Engineering (Phillips, Design Engineering)
    Johnny Ciancibello
    M.S. Biomedical Engineering (Feinstein Institute for Medical Research)
    Undergraduate students
    Caleb Tulloss
    B.S. Electrical Engineering (Now at Columbia, Ph.D.)
    Sarah Pratt
    B.S. Computer Science
    Joseph Faller
    B.S. Chemistry (Now at McMaster-Carr)
    Derrick Cheng
    B.S. Business, Entrepreneurship, and Organizations (Now Medical student at Brown)
    Placid Unegbu
    B.S. Electrical Engineering (Now at U.Penn, M.S.)
    Ben Ferleger
    B.S. Biomedical Engineering (Now Ph.D. student at UW Biorobotics Lab)
    Omar Nema
    B.S. Biomedical Engineering (Product Analyst at Arcadia Healthcare Solutions)
    International students
    Nicolas Gonzalez-Castro
    Bioengineering Undergraduate (CES, Medellin Colombia)
    Matheus Ferreira
    Control Engineering (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)


    Black, C., Darie, R., Borton, D. Organic Electronics for Artificial Touch. Trends in Neuroscience
    Powell, M., Hou, X., Galligan, C., Ashe, J., Borton, D. Toward multi-area distributed network of implanted neural interrogators. SPIE Biosensing and Nanomedicine X
    Cheng, D., Greenberg, P., Borton, D. Advances in Retinal Prosthetic Research: A Systematic Review of Engineering and Clinical Characteristics of Current Prosthetic Initiatives. Current Eye Research
    Darie, R., Powell, M., Borton, D. On delivering the sense of touch to the human brain. Neuron
    Powell, M., Britz, W., Harper, J., Borton, D. An engineered home environment for untethered data telemetry from nonhuman primates. Journal of Neuroscience Methods
    Capogrosso, M., et al. A brain-spine interface alleviating gait deficits after spinal cord injury in primates. Nature
    Dai, J, et al. Modified toolbox for optogenetics in the nonhuman primate. Neurophotonics
    May, T, et al. Detection of Optogenetic Stimulation in Somatosensory Cortex by Non-Human Primates-Towards Artificial Tactile Sensation. PloS one
    Yin, M., Borton, D.A., et al. Wireless Neurosensor for Full-Spectrum Electrophysiology Recordings during Free Behavior. Neuron
    Borton, D., et al. Corticospinal neuroprostheses to restore locomotion after spinal cord injury. Neurosci Res
    Borton, D., Micera, S., Millan Jdel, R. & Courtine, G. Personalized neuroprosthetics. Sci Transl Med 5, 212.
    Borton, D.A., Yin, M., Aceros, J. & Nurmikko, A. An implantable wireless neural interface for recording cortical circuit dynamics in moving primates. Journal of neural engineering 10, 026010-026010
    Borton DA, Nurmikko A V. Wireless, Implantable Neuroprostheses: Applying Advanced Technology to Untether the Mind. Future Trends in Microelectronics. 286–299
    Yin, M., Borton, D.A., Aceros, J., Patterson, W.R. & Nurmikko, A.V. A 100-channel hermetically sealed implantable device for wireless neurosensing applications. ISCAS. 2629-2632
    Wang, J., et al. Integrated device for combined optical neuromodulation and electrical recording for chronic in vivo applications. Journal of neural engineering 9, 016001-016001
    Borton, D., et al. Developing implantable neuroprosthetics: a new model in pig. 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 3024-3030
    Aceros, J., Yin, M., Borton, D.A., Patterson, W.R. & Nurmikko, A.V. A 32-channel fully implantable wireless neurosensor for simultaneous recording from two cortical regions. 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 2300-2306
    Wang, J., Borton, D.A., Zhang, J., Burwell, R.D. & Nurmikko, A.V. A neurophotonic device for stimulation and recording of neural microcircuits. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 2935-2938
    Nurmikko, A.V., et al. Listening to Brain Microcircuits for Interfacing With External World-Progress in Wireless Implantable Microelectronic Neuroengineering Devices. Proc IEEE Inst Electr Electron Eng 98, 375-388
    Song, Y.K., et al. Active microelectronic neurosensor arrays for implantable brain communication interfaces. IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering 17, 339-345

    Invited presentations

    Rewiring the nervous system, without wires
    @Rhode Island Hospital Neurosurgical / Neurology Grand Rounds
    Providence, Rhode Island
    Packaging Challenges for a new Class of Devices: Neural Interfaces
    @2015 Electronics Packaging Symposium
    Niskayuna, New York
    Rewiring the nervous system, without wires.
    @UW NSF CSNE Kavli Seminar
    Seattle, Washington
    A connection-free translational analysis platform for neuromotor disease research and therapeutic validation
    @McGowan Institute for Rehabilitation Retreat
    Pittsburg, Pensylvania
    The brain in the wild
    @Fudan University
    Shanghai, China
    Neuroprosthetic technologies to restore motor functions after SCI
    @SIAMOC Plenary lecture
    Pisa, Italy
    Innovation, Integration, Translation - a platform for the investigation of neuromotor disease
    @Seoul National University
    Seoul, South Korea

    Conference presentations

    Chicago, Il
    Chicago, Il
    Powell, M., Xing, D., Darie, R., Gregoire, A., Zimmermann, J., Britz, W., Harper, J.S., Borton, D.A. Radio-transparent enclosures for enabling wireless home-cage recordings of non-human primates. Society for Neuroscience
    Chicago, Il

    Help wanted!

    We are looking for driven scientists to help us design, build and implement novel neurotechnology for investigating the nervous system. Students with an electrical engineering and/or neuroscience background are encouraged to apply. If interested in joining the lab, please contact our administrative assistant, Cathy McElroy, for more information.

    Postdoctoral fellow openings:

  • Adaptive DBS in non-motor neuropsychiatric disorders: correcting limbic circuit imbalance

    We invite applications for a Postdoctoral Research Associate to help advance our understanding of, and ability to treat, obsessive-compulsive disorder in human patients using state-of-the-art neurotechnology. The position is located at Brown University main campus in Providence, RI. Competitive salary and the position is available for 1 year with the possibility of extension. The applicant has to be eligible to work in the U.S.

    Interested candidates should email CV and recent publications to Prof. Borton directly - email

  • Sensorimotor integration during active exploration of the environment

    We invite applications for a Postdoctoral Research Associate to help develop computational and analytical tools for decoupling contributions of sensation on the motor plan in nonhuman primate while performing active sensorimotor exploration. The project will leverage constantly evolving neurotechnology built within the team, and the applicant should have comfortability using standard electrophysiological tools. The position is located at Brown University main campus in Providence, RI. Competitive salary and the position is available for 1 year with the possibility of extension. The applicant has to be eligible to work in the U.S.

    Interested candidates should email CV and recent publications to Prof. Borton directly - email

  • Doctoral student openings on the following projects:

  • Sensorimotor dynamics during active and passive movements in the primate nervous system - please inquire if interested
  • Understanding the role of motor cortex in the control of primate locomotion
  • Development of chronic, awake imaging of behaving mouse spinal circuits
  • Masters student openings on the following projects:

  • Understanding the migration of microdevices in 3D in vitro models of the brain
  • Wireless, high-resolution eye-tracking for analysis of the primate visual system
  • Undergraduate student openings

    Magnetometer-based motion tracking and trajectory reconstruction in 3D space

    We are planning to use a pair of magnetometers to keep tracking of a free-moving magnet in 3D space. We will reconstruct its trajectory by converting the magnetic field data we measured back to position data, with the aide of optimization algorithms. You will work to minimize noise in the data through the implementation of a Kalman filter and other high-pass filters. Additionally, you will learn to solve for local and distant minima of multi-variable function with iterative approaches including Particle Swarm Optimization

    Contact Xiaoxiao Hou - email

    Contact information

    Office (BH733)
    Barus and Holley Building - 182 Hope street Providence, Rhode Island 02912
    email: (administrative assistant)
    Building for Environmental Research and Teaching room 307 (BERT) - 85 Waterman street, Providence RI 02912
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    Brown University School of Engineering - 182 Hope Street - Providence, RI 02912 USA
    Updated 2015